Improvements of chilli production in Dong Thap provinceUpdate: 10/15/2013
According to the Agriculture Department and Rural Development Thanh Binh Dong Thap province , the area of planted peppers in 2012 the district is 2,057 ha , the largest Mekong Delta . It not only solved the idle labor of local but also a significant source of income for farmers .
Due to a large area , in addition to consumption of fresh peppers , dried chili largely for consumption gradually . Go to Thanh Binh district , easily dried red chillies caught sight along the road , at home . Traditional method of sun exposure is the most common method for water production pepper . This method usually takes 5 days depending on weather conditions need to be 4-11 % moisture . Due to long exposure time so the quality is often poor peppers , red due to switch to brown , take vitamin C and vitamin A. Money The drying out chillies microbial infections are more dangerous than the little attention is infected alfatoxin
1 . Risk assessment on contaminated chilli Alfatoxin
Aflatoxins are toxins created by mold all over the world . Aflatoxin is formed before and after harvest . It is in the fruits , dried tubers , peanuts , corn , chilies and many other foods . Aflatoxin is the potential of the most carcinogenic mycotoxins and toxic among the most popular in chilli and chilli products . Aflatoxin content in accordance with the chili Agency of Agriculture and Drug Administration U.S. FDA does not exceed 20 parts per million .
Aflatoxins produced by several fungal strain of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus if it encountered favorable environmental conditions . Aflatoxin is virulent B1 , B2 , G1 and all with the chilli and chilli products from processing . Moreover, there are toxins ochratoxin A , by Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus carbonarius are peppers . Toxic substances harmful to the liver , kidney and suspected carcinogen . It also causes the immune system disorder . Aflatoxin is very stable chemicals , it can not be destroyed by cooking or processing .
In fact , the risk of aflatoxin contaminated peppers from before harvesting . In fruit bearing stage , if drought chilli fields with heavy rain and pest infection , especially anthrax letters . The disadvantages mentioned above are easily contaminated chilli aflatoxin while the tree .
After harvesting , if not remove the infected pepper ( especially anthracnose ) , not enough sun to sun exposure long time , it 's exposure to aflatoxin fungi . Usually after 2 days of exposure , if the humidity is above 14 % then chili Aspergillus spp . began to develop and begin to accumulate aflatoxin in chillies .
2 . The solution reduces the risk of aflatoxin contamination
- Breeding thin chili rice , dried meat and make to reduce drying time . Body hard , left upward as the air like peppers to avoid grounding . Left of the fungal infection
- In case of drought before harvest , need regular watering to avoid thermal shock . When watering , avoid contact with water to the left will increase the risk for microbial infections
- The time from picking to drying when conducted as short as possible
- Cut the peppers into pieces 2.5 cm will shorten drying time 50-80 % , but this technique only applies to sun dryer for susceptible bacteria
- When drying , moisture content of chilli dropped 8 % within 48 hours . Longer than this period created mold aflatoxin development .
Thus, the sun is very economical solutions and environmentally friendly , but do not create enough heat to quickly dry chili . High temperatures also make the left turn into black. If the weather is not favorable due to more clouds , rain ... then reduce heat and prolonged exposure time increases the risk of aflatoxin contamination
Therefore, industrial drying will create better products and more evenly . When dried , the temperature started to adjust 70 ° C , after 6 hours when humidity drops, peppers drying temperature adjusted to 50 ° C to avoid black pepper chemistry .
To overcome the peppers turn black , the scientists recommend the chili soaking liquid sodium metabisufite ( NAMS ) concentration of 0.3 % and 1 % Calcium Chloride CaCl2 for 10 minutes , the peppers retain color beautiful color after drying at 70 ° C for 4 h then lowered to 50 ° C.
When peppers humidity to 8% , to pack quickly to avoid drying peppers again , plastic bags and outer diameter welded mouth . Then stored at a temperature of 13 ° C to prevent aflatoxin contamination . If the correct product drying process , preserving the contaminated glass not much , but should also periodically sampled aflatoxin analysis . Peppers should be ground into flour and quickly packed onto ships for export before . Shelf chili powder at a temperature 37 ° C for 2-3 weeks only .
In Binh Thanh District with more flat-bed dryer for drying rice , especially rice households . In addition to drying can take advantage of these machines for drying peppers to make our products safe , hygienic , no fear of aflatoxin . This is the new direction that the provinces should be made to build models to replicate the latter point , at least peppers Thanh Binh has been recognized trademarks .
Source: Nguyễn Phước Tuyên - http://bannhanong.vn