Fructus Brucae Javamiceae seedsUpdate: 1/4/2015
Where grief is a familiar plant in Vietnam. It grows in the North and in the South, the hills and plains throughout. Our forefathers had put in jars to collect leaves for pests, animals boiling water bath, excellent medicines from bark, root bark, seeds, leaves, deworming, disinfectant, healing skin or vaginal infections. Still has long been used in Ayurvedic system in India, presenting in the medical books as Susrutasanhita ancient Sanskrit itself, the attention of the world for more than half a century from now, until recently it was new rooms experiments, the engineering firm extensive research to exploit the unique nature of its activities.
A large number of doctoral thesis, the patent office has thoroughly studied the structure, chemical composition and pharmacological properties of that substance. It is not uncommon these summaries published in the newspaper and book publishing professionals gathered separately to achieve results. Researchers also organizes conferences such as the Indian national or international: Rottach Egern (1980), Rauisch Holzhausen (1983), Eschborn (1984) Sofia (1985), Nairobi (1986), ... to present and exchange, to discuss the mechanism of synthesis or action of the active ingredients to the body organism. In 1995, a thickness of hundreds of pages of dozens of chapters go into detail of all areas of study (1). In the very long term problem is not uniform. Name the chemical posed a mess, not a system or a certain order. In Vietnam we even named the trees are not defined clearly. Glossary Vietnam book, Social Sciences Publishing House (Hanoi 1994 tr.824) could not differentiate between plants and trees sorrow oval where. In Hue and southern poetic name was also crowded into grief. «Flowers bloom white winter melancholy, quietly spreading spring Perfume far. Listen January Dong Ha, purple flower color Up »(Que Vo). Medicinal Plants in the Vietnam Institute of Medicine, Science and Technology Publishing House (Hanoi, 1990, tr.97, 263), as well as in the book AIDS drugs from wild plants and Niu Le Quy Tran Nhu Duc , Publisher of Thuan Hoa (Hue 1995, tr.394), Les plantes medicinales of ACCT au Vietnam (Paris 1990 tr.151), both names and sorrow oval where (or sorrow) are set to plant Melia azedarach. Please temporarily set aside the oval name forest, where the forest grief, grief for tree rat shit where Brucea javanica (Linn.) Merr. Simaroubaceae of them honestly and melancholy name or where Sadao Thailand Azadirachta indica siamensis place for trees. According to Professor Pham Hoang Ho in the grass Vietnam Tree (Montréal 1992, Q.II, p.1, tr.487) Azadirachta indica Juss what grief., Grief Where is Azadirachta excelsa high (Jack) Jacobs, also oval is Melia azedarach L., Melia azedarach Cherry Cultivar is tosendam, all of them Meliaceae. In the trees of conventional medicine, Publisher of Dong Thap (Sa Dec, 1987, p. 265) Vo Van Chi, also called Azadirachta indica is sorrow where also add the name Manni. Finally, Professor Do Tat Loi up in the medicinal plants and herbs Vietnam, Science and Technology Publishing House (Hanoi 1986 tr.181,1147), then for sorrow Where is Melia azedarach, in addition to the name white oval , cross-training, hard work, Governor porch, ... Then he distinguishes Melia azedarach Melia indica or Indian is oval, there is toosendam Melia oval or oval northwestern Sichuan.
Review of the calling've seen, based on the proposal of Professor Pham Hoang Ho, in the meantime the opinions of herbs, applying temporary unity names:
* Sad Azadirachta indica Where is A.Juss. The former India bakayan name other than nim (or neem) from the Sanskrit word mahanimba. Who Telugu VEPA name. Europe and America use the term china berry, china tree, neem tree or margosa. So the name bakayanic chemical acid, neobakayanin, ... Nimbin, nimbinon, nimbinal, ... margosa, margocin, margoson, .. azadirachtin, azadirachtol, azadirachion, ... vepaol.
* Neem or Melia, Melia azedarach Linn India. The Indians call it djharek, also known in Europe and America, the tree berry, sometimes also called china berry.
* Neem Melia Toosendam Sichuan Sieb. et Zucc.
The neem tree Burma
Where trees are sad researchers noted India and Pakistan and the first lot because it has been declared in the traditional disciplines of medicine that country. Work in the field of anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, immune stimulant, it was honored as the "village pharmacy tree" (2). Where trees grow sad fact in many places in Vietnam as well as in other countries, from Asia through Africa, especially in Nigeria. By the 30s, not machines sophisticated analysis, the chemical formula is not clear. Systematic research only began with the work of S. Siddiqui at the University of Karachi (Pakistan) in the early 40s active ingredient in every part of the plant, from the flowers, leaves, fruit, granular body, plastic, twigs, roots. Our applications include the areas of agriculture, medicine and industry, even a little: crop protection, curing all sorts of diseases, fabricated glass ceramic. The nature of research has been eradicated disease increased in recent years, each year tens report presents the effects of the substance on tree pests. Active ingredients extracted from fruits at most, most of the fresh ripe fruit. Many use the right dose of crude extract. A large number of chemicals extracted from grain, averaging about 10% by weight of the fruit. Many studies only squeezing out the seed oil (often called neem oil, 45%) and then extract the oil. Solvents commonly used are alcohol (methanol, ethanol), acetone, ether, petroleum ether, chloroform, ... and water. There are also methods of separating oil from an amorphous bitter substance (25%) offer through the baptism of chemicals, filters, making the net.
The first important chemical extracted is azadirachtin or electronic publications by training elements. J.H. Butterworth and D.E. Morgan at the University of Keele in England where durian seeds soaked in ethanol and chromatography on alumina using a tight cup amorphous. After repeatedly filtered through thin layer chromatography and dissolved in carbon tetrahydrochlorid, crystalline powdered azadirachtin yield 0,7g / kg. But want real azadirachtin net (over 99%), they must make it through the machine high performance liquid chromatography HPLC. Net Azadirachtin needed to determine its structure through the method of nuclear magnetic resonance NMR, X-line agency, coordinating signed MS, overrun a discussion between K. Nakanishi, W. Kraus and H.B. Broughton in 1975, nearly 15 years after this date, many azadirachtin isotopes were extracted: type A and B have the most, C and D only a few. HPLC allows the simultaneous use with other azadirachtin, of Nimbin, nimbolid, ohchinolid, deacetynimbin, azadiradion, salanin, three azadirachtin H, I, K and hydroxy norazadirachtin also extracted. After azadirachtin, Kao molecule is the most thorough study of the structure of Nimbin. Azadirachtin and other active ingredients of the plant has been tested on many types of insects from grasshoppers, crickets beetle through deep, beans, rice deep ... the first effects of the chase or prevent insect feeding before bite of rice, beans or fruit. If accidentally ingested, a series of other reactions acting on neurophysiological background and your body to stop such delay or prevent pupal metamorphosis of the ceiling. All four azadiractin have similar effects on the deep pass and scarab. One part of the report clearly indicated the substance, that is a part extraction, but do not know from which part of the tree or presented via a trade name: Margocide OK, CK, NEEM-AZAL, RB -a, RB-b, or Margosan-O, Azatin, RH-99 099, Neem PTI-EC4, NSE, ...
In medicine, nutrition through dedication, so astringent bark is used as nausea, vomiting oe (16), in order to increase cure gastric, esophageal ulcer, duodenal ulcer (24). Extracts of the seeds have an impact on sperm should be used contraception (19). Leaves used to treat jaundice, liver pain, eczema (7). Active disinfectant, anti-inflammatory commonly prescribed in the extract: nimbolid, nimbidin and nimbic acid in seeds, polysaccharides, and nimbionol nimbionon in shell, alkenal, methylbutenol, flavanol glycosides in the leaves, the amino acid in the leaves and bark. Nimbonon and nimbinol already been tried with Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermicis, S. aureus, and Gram-negative bacteria such as Klebsiella and other bacteria S. ozaen citreus, Streptococcus lactis, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (15). Inside the section nimbolid very strong effect on S. aureus, coagulase S. and S. aureus to nimbic acid, B. subtilis, S. coagulase and Diphtheroidae (9). Entails antibodies (18), treating ulcers, tumors (12.18), decrease in blood glucose (23) has been mentioned. Another important property is also mosquitoes, malaria treatment. Leaf extract, isonimbocinolid Aedes aegypti has been trying to (11), Alcan Me (CH2) NME (n = 16,17,24,32) Culex pipiens fatigans up (8). Extracted from the seeds, dipropyl disulphid kill Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The sulfur compounds play a role in not only repel mosquitoes but other insects such as Heliothis virescens Tobacco deep, deep wheat H. Zea (14). Gedium is also an effective anti-malaria (17). Some properties have been known in the countries where we are not depressed oil stimulates the skin (20) to extract from the flowers, leaves, stems, roots were mixed with other substances to make skin protection products (4.5 ), soap therapy (21), treating fungal skin soap (22). Extracts from the seeds is used to treat the scalp, hair maintenance, hair loss prevention (6). As part extracted from leaves, wood, bark, stems mixed with 90% ethanol is used in the prevention and treatment of gum disease, tooth arthritis (3). Through a different realm, trunk wood ash is used in the ceramics industry: thanks to proper size, amorphous nature, the ability to react so big, it has brought it to replace calcite in the fabrication glass, enamel firing up to 1,250 degrees.
Where sorrow States
Finally, there are a few parts of the plant are said to be flowers. «And every morning, when the six lines beginning bloom to welcome a new day, the whole space is then covered by a soothing aroma helped captivated the hearts of ecstasy. Time appears to exist and the flowers but very short, only shutters open for a few days, the flower color Melancholy East has entered the brutal and just a light breeze wafted alone, the thin wings and flowers to start Description faint fall falling, throughout the whole kingdom full aisle of. It always faithful to the colors purple, ultramarine mike did, but knows how to evoke feeling to feel sympathy sadly laments, as aspirations of the day regret what has passed, are gone forever without ever return. But it is rather strange, sweet scent of flowers helped soothe any aromatic six lines forever, lingering on the skin's hair daughter in public, someone tugged footsteps when do ye, then stood silently watching forever . Far from home, the heart always remember the old place. Place Sai prosperous city market, where to find sales also saw this flower ... For the Autumn and Spring coming to east through the summer then. Every toddler forever in love spell rotation laws of nature, the sun and even the passage of time. Suddenly remembering childhood ultramarine violet flower color of the old year. Know where to find the violet flowers of the head? Suddenly remembered, suddenly eager, after immense in our hearts ... "(Thanh Ly). Such beautiful flowers but not just to watch. It plays an important role in the cuisine. Flower buds and young leaves are used as vegetables with pork three indicators, surfing shrimp, grilled fish. Flower buds and leaves to boiling water dip to less bitter, add cucumber, tomatoes, green mango. In our Western countries and Cambodia, late flowering as a specialty is often used to make six pack where all the dishes handed down in folk medicine. States with the fiber stripped dry (dried squid, dried fish - catfish, catfish, colorful fish - dried deer) with mixed with radish, cucumber sauce and thin cells. The bitter taste of bitter gourd flowers similar, quiet nature, cause a sweet sensation on the tongue. It is believed tasty salad this exotic, fat has just fragrant, also work to cool the liver, detoxification, treatment of constipation.
Thus, from agriculture, medicine, through engineering, cuisine, where durian trees invaluable contribution. Creator skillful synthesis, in a tree that does not know how much is chemical: Where durian tree is actually a sophisticated chemical plant that does not have an implementation of human can match. In particular, among the chemicals themselves created, as well as salanin azadirachtin, Nimbin, deacetylnimbin has been formulated to pesticides, to protect crops and fruits (10), in addition to drugs antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, treat ulcers, tumors, mosquitoes, malaria treatment, including skin, hair, pregnancy prevention, ... to mention just some of the common applications. It's true that "pharmaceutical plant in the village". And also easy to see why the United States wanted drug company record by winning writer occupies a precious resource such, many people especially Asian countries, India ranks first, protested. Our country focus on agriculture, tropical diseases were rife, can not make tapping a unique resource such as durian trees anywhere.