How to use fish meal as animal feed, fish feed as effectively as possible

Update: 4/2/2013

Use of fish meal as feed for ruminant animals
In ruminants, fish meal as a protein source can be resolved in the rumen (Rumen Degradable Protein) and therefore be used as a bypass protein (protein by-pass).

Use of fish meal as feed for animal feed
In dairy cows, when compared with other sources of protein can not resolve (undegradable protein) such as soybean meal or cottonseed meal, fish meal gave higher results (Broderick, 2005; Broderick et al., 2000; Korhonen et al., 2002), Improved amino acid balance and reduce N excretion (Ohgi, 2004; Abu-Ghazaleh et al., 2001; Schroeder et al., 2000). 
Cattle respond to fishmeal protein is improved by treating urea in a diet based on rice straw (Talukder et al., 1990; Khan et al., 1990). Fish meal increased milk yield and milk protein yield in cows (Malleson et al., 2008; Ibarra et al., 2006; Broderick, 2004; Ohgi, 2004; Yeo et al., 2003; Korhonen et al., 2002; Hill et al., 1999; Wright et al., 1998), especially if the rate of forage / concentrate ratio (Pike et al., 1994). However, some reports claim that it did not affect milk yield or milk protein (Moussavi et al., 2008 and 2007; Serbester et al., 2005; Allison et al., 2002). 
Fishmeal also added beef to meet high milking frequency (Yeo et al., 2003) and reduce the concentration of PGF2α can affect early pregnancy in cattle (Mattos et al., 2002), because So higher conception rates (Staples et al., 1998). Feeding fish meal can increase the amount of milk n-3 fatty acid (Abu-Ghazaleh et al., 2001). 
Use of fish meal as feed for sheep
Not resolved protein of fish meal is great in sheep because it increases food intake in sheep from 2.5% in sheep and 7.5% sheep mother (FIN, 2000).  High protein improves immune status: breeding ewes during late pregnancy with reduced fishmeal and thereby reducing infection anthelminthic treatment methods (Donaldson et al., 1998).  Fishmeal supplementation increased reproductive performance in ewes: conception rate, calving rate, weight, lamb, lamb vigor of the mother at birth, colostrum production and estrus (Vipond et al. , 1996; Robinson et al., 1989; Robinson et al., 1999).  Milking ewes supplemented with fish meal have higher milk production. Fish meal is also improved up high survival rate of lambs weaned (Poppi et al., 1988). 
Use of fish meal as feed for pigs
Fish meal has a high biological value for pigs. Good-quality fish meal protein: it has a concentration of methionine and protein digestion. Its composition includes vitamins, n-3 fatty acids and minerals are very valuable for pigs. The level of incorporation to change 5-10% in adult pig or pigs (in piglets eat about 3%) (FIN, 2000; Patience et al., 1995). 
Many different studies have shown that fish meal is good for pigs started eating and weaners (Lopes et al., 2007; Zivkovic et al., 2007; Kats et al., 1992; Aas et al. 1984) less than 10% (higher rate resulted in loss of economic efficiency) (Patience et al., 1995). 
Fish meal is also reported allergy to pigs and has been found to reduce diarrhea in post-weaning period (Gore et al., 1990). It may be useful in improving the health status of low daily piglets (Bergstrom et al., 1997). 
Use of fish meal as feed for poultry
Attractive fish meal as a protein source for poultry. Fish meal has a high biological value in poultry, not only as a source of protein, but also a source of minerals such as P, Ca and trace elements such as Se or I. However, the high price of fish meal limit levels and use a ratio around or below 5% of the diet (Blair, 2008; Chadd, 2008). 
Including fish meal in chicken diet increased body weight, daily weight gain and level of intake increased. Fish meal has a greater impact on the development in the chicken meat from the beginning. It works for small turkeys. Use of fish meal as a feed for the hens can cause a fishy odor in eggs and meat. (Blair, 2008). 
Use of fish meal as feed for rabbits
Fish meal is a valuable food for rabbits. Due to its cost, there were several attempts to replace it with less expensive products: it can be completely or partially replacing fish meal with quinoa seeds, blood meal, waste products from the incubator eggs, meat and poultry offal meal (Lebas, 2004). 
Use of fish meal as feed for fish
Fish meal is an essential amino acid supplements, protein, ideal for fish or shrimp, a major protein source in aquaculture. Of fish meal protein digestion coefficient is very high quality amino acids (Anderson et al., 1995). Fish meal is also a good source of essential fatty acids, minerals and trace elements. 
Existing data shows that out of the 6 million tonnes of fishmeal available worldwide, more than 65% is used in feed for fish and crustaceans. The combined level of fish meal can be between 40-60% in feed for fish less than 5% in food for carp, catfish, tilapia (Tacon et al., 2008). 
Most cyprinids (carp) reared in semi-intensive ponds are fed with feed practically no fish meal. In recent years, much progress has been made in the direction of replacing fish meal with a mixture of different plant protein sources even in the salmon or fish, thus resulting in significant economies solve issues of sustainable development (Kaushik, 1990; Kaushik et al., 2004; Kaushik et al., 2008). 
Use of fish meal as feed for crustaceans
Just as food for fish, food for freshwater shrimp or shrimp containing high levels of fish meal (up to 40%). Botanical ingredients are added as a replacement for fish meal or other protein sources derived from marine shrimp powder, toner powder to ensure sustainable development of shrimp farming (Amaya et al., 2008) . 

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